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Articles should convey cutting-edge information that is important to be made available as rapidly as possible. The length of articles will vary depending on the information that needs to be communicated. Figures should be limited in number to the minimum necessary to convey the critical points of the article. Articles must include a Title Page, Abstract, Current Claim, Introduction, Methods, Results and Discussion sections, as well as a list of References in addition to Figures (and Legends) and/or Tables. SRO Protocols, which allows authors to provide extended details of the methods and techniques that are used in SRO articles, are also welcomed as are Letters to the Editor.


The Title Page should contain the title of the article, a shortened version (no more than 50 characters including spaces) for the running head, the authors (first name, middle initial and last name), affiliations (please do not use superscript or subscript characters to denote affiliations), and the full mailing address, telephone, fax and E-mail addresses of all authors. The first author will be assumed to be the corresponding author unless otherwise indicated.

  • A single SRO Category should also be designated on the Title Page.
  • In addition, a Current Claim, which is a one sentence declarative statement of the major findings of the research, should be included on the Title Page.
  • The Abstract should be approximately 200 words in length. It should state concisely and specifically what was done, what was found, and what conclusions were reached.
  • The Introduction should describe the objectives of the research; they should be placed in perspective to previous work in the area.
  • The Methods section should describe how the research was carried out.
  • The Results should present clearly, but succinctly, the experimental findings of the study.
  • The Discussion section should include a brief statement of the principal findings followed by a discussion of the validity of the observations and their relation to other published work.

Authors are especially encouraged to present their views regarding the significance of their work and suggest future hypotheses that could be tested and/or avenues that others could explore.

SRO Categories

A single Sleep Research Online Category should be listed on the Title Page. It will be used to categorize the article for review and bibliographic purposes. Please include the most appropriate Category name and number from the following list:

  1. Aging
  2. Alertness and Performance
  3. Behavior
  4. Biochemistry
  5. Biological Rhythms
  6. Books, Reviews, and Theoretical Discussions
  7. Dreaming (Physiology and Behavior)
  8. Effects of External Stimuli
  9. Endocrinology
  10. Epidemiology
  11. Instrumentation and Methodology
  12. Miscellaneous
  13. Molecular Biology
  14. Neurophysiology-General
  15. Neurophysiology of the Visual System
  16. Ontogeny
  17. Personality and Psychopathology
  18. Pharmacology
  19. Phylogeny
  20. Physiology
  21. Sleep Cycle in the Human Adult
  22. Sleep Deprivation
  23. Sleep Disorders-Apnea
  24. Sleep Disorders-Insomnia
  25. Sleep Disorders-Miscellaneous
  26. Sleep Disorders-Narcolepsy
  27. Sleep Disorders-Parasomnias
  28. Sleep in Other Medical Disorders


References should be listed in the reference list at the end of the article. They should consist of only published and "in press" articles (i.e., accepted for publication in a specific journal or book). "Submitted", "personal communication", "unpublished observations" and "in preparation" references should be cited only in the text in the following form: (Hypnos et al., unpublished observations).

References in the text should be cited as follows: "The procedure used has been described elsewhere (Hypnos, 1995)," or "Our observations are in agreement with those of Hypnos and Morphius (1993) and of Van Winkle et al. (1994)," or with multiple references, in chronological order: "Earlier reports (Hypnos and Morphius, 1990, 1992; Van Winkle et al., 1993; Hypnos, 1994, 1995)..."

In the list of references, citations should be numbered and presented in alphabetical order according to the last name of the first author. In two-author articles with first authors of the same last name, the order is alphabetical by the second author's name. The name of the author(s) should be followed by the full title of the article as it appears in the original publication together with the source of the reference, the year of publication, the volume number (and issue, if applicable) and the first and last page numbers. When an author's name includes a designation such as "Jr.", "III", etc., please use the following format (Hypnos H JR). "In press" articles should be listed as follows: ...Journal title year (in press). Abbreviations of journal titles should follow those listed in Index Medicus
(see ).
Please do not use periods following abbreviations.


Journal Article
Aserinsky E, Kleitman N. Regularly occurring periods of eye motility and concurrent phenomena during sleep. Science 1953; 118: 273-4.

Kryger M, Roth T, Dement W, eds. The Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine. Second Edition. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders, 1994.

Chapter in a Book
Mahowald MW, Schenck CH. REM Sleep Behavior Disorder. In: Kryger M, Roth T, Dement W, eds. The Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine. Second Edition. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders, 1994, pp. 574-588.


Acknowledgments should be brief and include references to sources of financial and logistical support.

Figures and Tables

Figures may be in color or black-and-white; they should include an explanatory title and sufficient detail in the legend so as to be intelligible without reference to the text. Figure legends should be grouped separately at the end of the article. Figures and Tables should be referred to in the text using Arabic numbers (i.e., Figure 1, Table 1, etc.) in order of appearance and their approximate position should be indicated in the article (i.e., "Place Table 1 about here"). For hard copy submission, each Figure and/or Table should be marked on the back with its appropriate number, together with the name(s) of the author(s) and the title of the article. Photographs and photomicrographs should be unmounted glossy prints and should not be retouched.

Additional Guidelines

Abbreviations should be spelled out at their first occurrence, then introduced by placing the abbreviation in parentheses after the abbreviated term. Unit Measurements should be expressed using the metric system for all volumes, lengths, weights, etc. Temperatures should be measured in degrees celsius (centigrade). Units should conform to the International System of Units (SI). Use generic names in referring to drugs. Trade names may be given in parentheses after the first mention, but the generic name should be used thereafter. Please try to use symbols within the standard character set (normal or ASCII) or the symbols within the "Symbol" font. Also, if you are familiar with the program "Key Caps" on the Macintosh or "Character Map" in Windows, please use these for adding additional symbols to your manuscript. If the symbol you wish to use cannot be found using the above criteria, please spell out the symbol (e.g., beta for ß) or your symbol might not appear on the Web properly.


SRO Protocols are designed to present current and updated protocols of techniques that are of relevance to basic sleep research. The overriding criteria for publication are significant methodological and experimental procedures that will allow others to carry out studies or better interpret the data that emanate from studies. Protocols may relate to experiments described in papers published in SRO or to methodologies or techniques of general interest to sleep researchers.


  1. Protocols: Complete, full-length protocols.
  2. Protocol Updates: Updates on previously published protocols, describing new developments which are of interest but do not warrant a completely new submission.
  3. Technical Tips: Comments on published protocols describing useful hints as well as "tricks" such as timing, equipment, chemicals, temperature, pH concentration data, troubleshooting, etc.


Letters to the Editor containing information of general interest to readers of SRO are encouraged. Contributions to this section of SRO should be addressed to the Managing Editor and sent to the address listed below. Please use the same submission procedures for a Letter to the Editor as for other types of submissions to SRO.


By Online Submission

We have developed a program that allows articles to be submited via the Internet, automatically. It will be available shortly. In the meantime, please use one of the alternate submission methods below.

By Diskette

1) The preferred medium is a 3 1/2 inch diskette in MS-DOS or Macintosh format. Please make sure that the diskette contains only the relevant files (one article and any accompanying figures per diskette).

2) If possible, tables should be created using your wordprocessor's table function.

3) Save figures separately as GIF, PICT or TIFF files. Do not embed the figures in your document. If you are not able to save your figures electronically, please send a printed copy by snail-mail to the address below.

4) Label the diskette with your name, the file(s) on the diskette, and the wordprocessing package and computer used.


If you are familiar with FTP (for example, Fetch for Macintosh or WS-FTP for the PC), you can transfer your files via the Internet directly to us. Name your file as the last name of the first author plus the file format of your document (e.g., Smith.doc). Use .doc for Microsoft Word, .wpd for WordPerfect, .rtf for Rich Text Format, and .txt for text. You will need the following information when using FTP:

  • Hostname:
  • Login: SROsubmit
  • Password: SROsubmit1
  • Initial Directory: /SROsubmit

Please note that it would be most helpful if a hard copy is also sent by snail-mail, even if you submit your article by any of the above electronic methods.

By Printed Copy

If you are unable to submit your article in electronic form, you may send a printed copy of the article and unmounted glossy print(s) of any table(s) and/or figure(s) to:

Managing Editor
Sleep Research Online
1251 Westwood Blvd.
Los Angeles, CA 90024
Tel: (310) 478-6648
Fax: (310) 235-2067

Links to the journals Sleep and The Journal of Sleep Research.